RStudio supports multiple database options. Currently, the supported databases are SQLite and PostgreSQL. When running RStudio Workbench in a load balanced configuration, you must use a PostgreSQL database, as SQLite is insufficient for managing state between multiple nodes.
In order to set up a database connection, modify the file /etc/rstudio/database.conf. The file contains documentation about how to use it, and you can simply uncomment any lines that are relevant to your configuration. Note that because the file can contain password data, this file must be user read/write only (file mask 600).
By default, RStudio creates a SQLite database for you automatically under the
/var/lib/rstudio-server directory. For single-node installations, this is sufficient, but as stated before, will not be sufficient for load balanced deployments.
You should never specify a SQLite directory that is on shared storage, such as NFS. Per the SQLite documentation, this can cause data corruption.
provider=sqlite # Directory in which the sqlite database will be written directory=/var/lib/rstudio-server
If you wish to use PostgreSQL, you must create an empty database for RStudio to connect to. You must not share this database with other products or services. If running an HA setup, it is strongly recommended to run the database on a separate server than the RStudio services to ensure maximum availability. The minimum supported PostgreSQL version is 9.5.
# Note: when connecting to a PostgreSQL database, a default empty rstudio database must first be created! provider=postgresql # Specifies the host (hostname or IP address) of the database host host=localhost # Specifies the database to connect to database=rstudio # Specifies the TCP port where the database is listening for connections port=5432 # Specifies the database connection username username=postgres # Specifies the database connection password. This may be encrypted with the secure-cookie-key. # The encrypted password can be generated using the helper command rstudio-server encrypt-password. # It is strongly recommended that you encrypt the password! password=postgres
PostgreSQL connection URIs are also supported if preferred. If specifying additional options other than the ones provided above, such as
sslmode, the use of a URI is required.
provider=postgresql # Specifies the connection URL in the form of a postgresql:// connection URL. This can be used if you need # to set special database settings that are not available with the other parameters. If set, this parameter will # override any other postgresql parameters that have been set, with the exception of the password. A password in # the URI is supported as a convenience but we strongly recommend using the separate password field, which will # always replace any password specified in the URI. connection-uri=postgresql://postgres@localhost:5432/rstudio?sslmode=allow&options=-csearch_path=public
Available PostgreSQL connection string parameters are documented in the official PostgreSQL documentation.
Note: The password in
connection-urimay contain characters that may need to be URL-encoded to work properly. Avoid encoding the password by using the separate
passwordfield in the configuration.
SSL for the PostgreSQL database can be used with RStudio by specifying
sslmode=allow within the
connection-uri parameter. The
connection-uri mode of configuration must be used to specify additional database connection options such as these, beyond the simple name/value pairs that are supported.
If you need to, you can tell RStudio to restrict itself to keeping its tables within a specific schema. You control this by giving PostgreSQL a search path as part of the URL by adding
options=-csearch_path=<schema-name> to the
connection-uri. If it’s the only item you’re adding, separate it from the rest of the URL with ? (just like the sslmode item above). Otherwise, separate it from other items with ‘&’.
RStudio will refuse to start when given a schema that does not already exist. The schema must be owned by the connecting user or by a group that contains the connecting user.
22.214.171.124 PostgreSQL Account
When setting up your PostgreSQL database for use with RStudio, ensure that you do not use the default
postgres user account that comes with a standard installation. This is to ensure that your database is secure. Always ensure that whichever account that is used to access the database contains a strong password - do not use an account that has no password! You should also ensure that only one PostgreSQL user has access to the RStudio database for maximum security.
126.96.36.199 PostgreSQL Password Encryption
A plain-text password in the
connection-uri options of the
/etc/rstudio/database.conf file must only be used temporarily for testing purposes. A warning will be present in RStudio log output when a plain-text password is being used.
We strongly recommend encrypting the password using the command
rstudio-server encrypt-password. This way, if you have to backup your configuration, save it to a repository or share it with RStudio Support, your PostgreSQL password will be protected.
Use the following steps to encrypt the PostgreSQL password:
- Remove the password from the
connection-urioption if defined in the
- Run the command
sudo rstudio-server encrypt-passwordand enter the PostgreSQL password.
- Copy the resulting encrypted password printed in the terminal.
- Add or replace the
passwordoption in the
database.conffile using the encrypted password copied above.
- Restart RStudio. Confirm it operates normally. You should no longer see a warning about plain-text password in RStudio logs.
Note: Alternatively, you can also “pipe” your password to the
rstudio-server encrypt-passwordcommand to skip the prompt. Useful when the password is already stored elsewhere. For example:
cat passwordfile | sudo rstudio-server encrypt-password
The password encryption uses the
secure-cookie-key value. By default RStudio generates this key during installation and stores it in
The same key value must be used for both encryption and decryption. If the key value used to encrypt the PostgreSQL password changes, the password must be re-encrypted with the new key and updated in
If preparing RStudio configuration files on one system for deployment on other system(s), you must manually generate a key and store it in
/etc/rstudio/secure-cookie-key, then encrypt the password again, update
/etc/rstudio/database.conf, and ensure this
secure-cookie-key file is deployed along with other RStudio configuration files. The technique for creating this file is described in Generating a Key.
188.8.131.52 PostgreSQL Connection Testing and Troubleshooting
Once the settings have been entered in
/etc/rstudio/database.conf, use the
sudo rstudio-server verify-installation command to test connectivity and quickly view errors and warnings.
15.1.3 Connection Pool
RStudio will create a pool of connections to the database at startup. The size of this pool defaults to the number of logical CPUs on the host running RStudio Workbench, up to 20. It is not generally recommended that you adjust the size of this pool manually unless you need to address a specific problem, such as exceeding a connection limit on the database or experiencing delays in RStudio Workbench caused by unavailable connections.
If you do need to adjust the size of the pool, you can do so by setting
database.conf as follows:
When changing database providers, you must migrate your existing database data from your current database provider to the new provider to prevent unexpected data loss.
The following steps should be taken to perform a successful migration from SQLite to PostgreSQL:
- Create an empty database called
rstudioin PostgreSQL (or any custom name according to your RStudio configuration below). Ensure the connection credentials work for the new database.
- Stop RStudio.
- Switch to PostgreSQL by modifying the
/etc/rstudio/database.conffile. If you are storing the SQLite database in a different location be sure to keep the
directoryoption in the file during the migration.
- Run the command
sudo rstudio-server migrate-db. Watch for the output and confirm that the migration was successful.
- Once the data has been imported to the new database, restart RStudio.
Note: The migration from PostgreSQL to SQLite is not currently supported.